Re: Positive discrimination
This is also known as affirmative action or reverse discrimination. I think a working definition would be helpful: These refers to policies that take factors including "race, color, religion, gender, sexual orientation, or national origin" into consideration in order to benefit an underrepresented group "in areas of employment, education, and business", usually justified as countering the effects of a history of discrimination.
It's called reverse discrimination for a good reason: The irony is that those who seek to counter discrimination actually perpetuate it by continuing to factor in someone's race, color, etc.
Thus, according to the definition, "senior citizenship discounts" and even scholarships do not fall under this category. I think it's painfully obvious that giving someone a leg-up simply because of what they look like or where they come from as opposed to their qualifications is unfair and therefore wrong. With this note, since every type of person becomes a senior citizen, this means discounts apply to every race, so this is obviously not an example of discrimination.
Scholarships are difficult, and it's easy to see how that might be discrimination, but it's not. There are two kinds of scholarships: those that are available to everyone, and specialized ones that are available to a select few who meet those special requirements, which I imagine is what is specifically in question.
These specialized scholarships can range from being for only-children who have only a Latino mother, to Left-handed swimmers. They are funded by people who sympathize with these students because they have been in their own situation. It is not discrimination for these scholarships to help the people they want. Granted, they sometimes require things like race, nationality, etc., but to claim that it is discrimination would be to claim that scholarships for the left-handed is discrimination against the right-handed. This argument, however, holds little water.