I have an interesting idea on how it is that Madara can use that time-space jutsu. First I believe Madara is the only one who can use it, and the only one who will ever be able to use it. His brother might have been able to use it as well but since he gave his eyes up for Madara and died he obviously can't. Looking back it seems that some sharingan users have specific traits affiliated with their sharingan. The others don't have anything unique except for the sharingan.
First example: Obito's sharingan that's used by Kakashi. The mangekyou sharingan Kakashi uses transports the object that he is focusing on to another dimension.
Naruto 276 page 08 | One Manga
Now this specific mangekyou tech hasn't been used by any other sharingan user I know of, so I think that it was a unique trait in Obito. Either that or when Kakashi got the sharingan his traits changed the nature of the sharingan making him able to use this tech. It's more likely it's Obito's sharingan's unique ability.
Second example: Danzo's Sharingan in his left eye.
Naruto 459 page 15 | One Manga
As we know it is the sharingan of uchiha shisui who was capable of entering the enemies mind and controlling them. Which was unique and specific just to shisui, and as far as I know, no other sharingan user had this ability.
Third example: Itachi and Sasuke.
These two are brothers and can use ametarasu, tsukuyomi, and susano'o
Kakashi is trapped in the tsukuyomi even though he has a sharingan, and it says that the only person who could stand a chance would be the one with the same blood flowing through them. Which is his brother sasuke.
Sasuke can use the same eye techs and match itachi in them because they are brothers just as itachi tells kakashi in the above link.
All of these different unique eye techs are associated with specific sharingan users, and there appears to be no one else who can use the same techs. Except for family members, more closely brothers. Itachi and sasuke. Madara and his brother (forgot his name). Thats why I think Madara's brother would have been able to use the same space-time jutsu as madara.
The only evidence I can find of this space-time jutsu being unique to Madara's sharingan as opposed to some other tech he might have achieved is the way it is drawn. More closely where the tech looks to originate from.
Naruto 467 page 07 | One Manga
The space-time jutsu originates around his sharingan. Thats where everything swirls in and then gets teleported to another dimension. So basically thats why I think its an eye tech and not another jutsu. Another question then, which has been asked, is what does his right eye hold? But thats for somewhere else. I thought this was an interesting idea and wanted to throw it out there to see what everyone thinks about it.