Naruto is Largely Based on Reality
As a person deeply passionate about human history and political science, I have observed certain things in Naruto which appear grounded in reality. This is my theory on the parallels between Naruto and the world we live in, do give me your views.
1. The Early Shinobi World
With reference to Hashirama's flashbacks, the early shinobi world was fraught with conflicts between the various clans.
This situation is similar to the ancient times when nation states were not yet established across the globe and fighting occurred between small ethnic groups.
The countries/hidden villages in Naruto comprise shinobi from different clans. There was hope that the formation of the hidden villages would bring about greater peace. However, the villages continued to fight. The nation states and political entities we have in our world also comprise different peoples and were often formed on the basis of an "imagined community". One thing remains constant in the history of the Shinobi world and the real world: conflict. Evidently, countries continued to go to war with each other over territory, ideology, resources etc.
The Akatsuki comprises shinobi marginalised by the mainstream shinobi world. Yahiko, Konan and Nagato were all victims of the 3rd great shinobi war fought between the big countries. They have suffered and witnessed the brutality of war and sought to achieve "justice" in the shinobi world. The other members of the Akatsuki were all victims of the cruel Shinobi system. Akatsuki became an organisation which seeks to achieve peace through violent and extreme measures.
When we draw parallels with our world, Akatsuki is representative of terrorists and extremists, who are ultimately reacting to certain social and political injustice in the world and resort to violence to achieve their aims. Take for example, the Middle East Conflict. The many wars fought between Israel and the Arab nations over Palestine have clearly led to various problems such as displacing Palestinians from their homes and the harsh occupation of the West Bank and Gaza. What was originally a conflict between states gradually evolved into a conflict which involved non-state actors/religious fundamentalist groups like the Hamas and Hezbollah which emerged as a result of the suffering caused by the protraction of the conflict. These groups seek to destroy Israel to end the conflict.
4. The role of Madara and Obito
Yet, the members of Akatsuki are but people, who initially genuinely wanted peace, but were swayed by Obito to adopt a more radical stance.
Obito himself can be considered a victim of the harsh Shinobi world and wished for world peace. However, he was corrupted by Madara who in my opinion is the symbol of evil in our world. Then, Obito went on to influence the other distraught individuals like Nagato, thereby forming Akatsuki. Akatsuki was a therefore, a product of the chaotic Shinobi world which has caused death and suffering, guided by evil.
In our world, the resentment towards those that have brought suffering has led to people supporting leaders who are driven by the desire to use violence to destroy the aggressors to achieve real peace.
5. Shinobi Alliance
In response to the Akatsuki's threats to peace and security, the give great nations formed the Shinobi Alliance, which also includes the neutral Samurai group. This alliance is similar to the United Nations, where countries all over the world organise themselves to deal with various problems of the world, one of which is the issue of global peace and security.
In essence, many of the roles played in Naruto are similar to the real world.
Countries/Shinobi Villages = Nation states
Akatsuki = Terrorist organisations
Akatsuki Members (Nagato, Konan etc.) = Victims of social and political injustice
Obito = Victims of social and political injustice & Leaders of terrorist organisations
Madara = Evil
Shinobi Alliance = Regional/International Organisations like the UN to counter terrorist threats